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Discovering the Riches of Pergamon: A Journey Through History in the Heart of Asia Minor

Pergamon was a major city in ancient Asia Minor that was renowned for its rich cultural heritage, intellectual pursuits, and architectural masterpieces. Situated in the Mysian region of northwest Asia Minor, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon and remained an important center of influence for centuries to come.

The Rise of Pergamon Under the Attalid Dynasty

Pergamon rose to prominence during the Hellenistic Period under the rule of the Attalid Dynasty (281-133 BCE). Under the leadership of Philetaerus, the founder of the dynasty, Pergamon became one of the most powerful and culturally rich cities in the ancient Mediterranean world. The city was renowned for its vast library, production of parchment, and remarkable structures and monuments, including the Altar of Zeus, which is now housed in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.

The Legacy of Pergamon in History and Literature

Pergamon is widely remembered as the birthplace of the Greek physician Galen and one of the seven churches of Asia mentioned in the biblical Book of Revelation. The city was also referred to as "where Satan has his throne" and "where Satan lives" due to its history of raising structures, monuments, and temples dedicated to the Greek gods.

From Xenophon to Alexander the Great: A Chronology of Pergamon

Pergamon was first recorded in writing by Xenophon in the 4th century BCE and established by the 7th century BCE. It was later controlled by the Achaemenid Empire until the arrival of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE. After Alexander's death, the city was taken by his general Lysimachus and later by one of his commanders, Philetaerus, who founded the Attalid Dynasty.

The Decline of Pergamon and its Rediscovery

After the death of Attalus III, the last of the Attalid Dynasty, Pergamon was bequeathed to Rome and began to decline under the Byzantine Empire. The city suffered severe damage during the conquest of the Ottoman Turks in the 12th century and was eventually abandoned and left in ruin. It was not until the 17th century that European explorers first began publishing descriptions of the city, and serious excavation of the site did not begin until the 19th century. Today, the ancient city of Pergamon can be found near the modern city of Bergama, Turkey.


Pergamon was a city of great intellectual and cultural significance that left a lasting legacy in history and literature. From its rise under the Attalid Dynasty to its decline and eventual rediscovery, Pergamon remains a fascinating chapter in the story of ancient Asia Minor. Its rich heritage, architectural wonders, and contributions to the fields of medicine and literature continue to inspire visitors and scholars alike.

Under the Attalid Dynasty, Pergamon reached its height of prosperity, power, and influence. Attalus I (r. 241-197 BCE) made Pergamon a major center of commerce and culture by expanding its territory, improving its infrastructure, and building its economy. He also fought off invasions from the neighboring kingdoms and established Pergamon as a dominant power in the region.

Eumenes II (r. 197-159 BCE) continued his father's work and made Pergamon one of the most powerful kingdoms of its time. He built great works of architecture, including the Altar of Zeus, the monumental terrace and the library which held 200,000 scrolls, second only to the Library of Alexandria.

Attalus II (r. 159-138 BCE) was an astute politician and military leader who secured Pergamon's borders and continued to expand its territory. He was also a patron of the arts and sciences, supporting the famous physician Galen, and maintaining the library as one of the great centers of learning of the ancient world.

Attalus III (r. 138-133 BCE) bequeathed his entire kingdom to the Roman Republic upon his death. The Republic absorbed Pergamon into its province of Asia, and the city lost much of its power and influence. The library was still highly regarded, however, and its collection was eventually transferred to the Library of Alexandria in Egypt.

In conclusion, Pergamon was a city of great importance and influence in the ancient world. Its rich history, legendary heroes, and powerful dynasty helped to establish it as a center of culture, commerce, and learning, and its legacy continues to be remembered today.

The Attalid dynasty was one of the most powerful in the Hellenistic period, and Pergamon became one of the great cultural and intellectual centers of the ancient world. The city was renowned for its library, which was considered one of the greatest in the ancient world, second only to the Library of Alexandria. It was said to have held over 200,000 manuscripts and was a center for scholarly activity and the exchange of ideas. The Attalids were also great patrons of the arts, especially of sculpture and architecture, and many of the city's buildings, including the theater and the palace, were considered works of art in their own right.

One of the most impressive structures in Pergamon was the Temple of Zeus, which was located on the acropolis of the city. This temple was said to have been built by Eumenes II in the second century BCE and was considered one of the most magnificent religious structures in the ancient world.

The Attalids were also great military powers and often found themselves at odds with the neighboring Seleucid Empire. However, Pergamon was eventually absorbed into the Roman Empire in 133 BCE, when Attalus III died without an heir and bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans. Pergamon continued to flourish under Roman rule and became an important center of learning, culture, and commerce.

In the centuries that followed, Pergamon faced numerous challenges, including invasions by the Goths, earthquakes, and fires. Nevertheless, the city remained a significant center of power and culture into the Byzantine period, although it gradually declined in importance over the centuries. Today, the ruins of Pergamon are a popular tourist destination and a testament to the city's rich cultural and historical legacy.

The Rise and Fall of Pergamon: From a Wealthy Center of Trade to a Tourist Destination.



In the 4th century CE, the emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306-337 CE) made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire and the city's pagan temples were gradually abandoned and some, such as the Red Basilica, converted into churches. Christianity was embraced by the Pergamene populace and the city became a bishopric with its own bishop who was influential in the religious politics of the region. The city's prosperity continued into the Byzantine period (c. 330-1453 CE) when it was a wealthy center of trade and culture, attracting many visitors and patrons.

The decline of Pergamon began in the 7th century CE when the Arab-Muslim Conquest of the Near East took place, leaving the city vulnerable to attacks by both the Byzantine forces and Arab armies. In the 11th century CE, the city was sacked by the Seljuk Turks, and it continued to decline into the Ottoman period (c. 1299-1922 CE) when it became a small agricultural town of no particular importance. Its cultural and architectural treasures, however, were never completely lost and, in the 19th and early 20th centuries CE, German archaeologists made excavations of the city which revealed the extensive ruins and structures from its glorious past. Today, Pergamon is a popular tourist destination and a testament to the brilliance and cultural achievements of the ancient kingdom of the same name.

We highly recommend visiting Pergamon as part of one of our tour packages, where you will be guided by a professional tour guide. For more information on the tour, please click the link provided or directly contact our team via WhatsApp. We look forward to assisting you in experiencing the rich history and cultural achievements of this ancient city.

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