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Capital of Turkey

Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, has a rich history dating back to ancient times. The city became the capital in 1923, replacing Istanbul. It is home to important government institutions and foreign embassies, making it a hub of political activity. Ankara's iconic landmarks feature on Turkish lira banknotes, such as the Anıtkabir mausoleum and Kocatepe Mosque.

As one of the founding members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Ankara holds a significant place in Turkey's history. The city has many archaeological sites and museums showcasing its cultural heritage. Visitors can learn about Ankara's past by visiting these sites and exploring its vibrant neighborhoods.

The Anıtkabir mausoleum is an impressive monument dedicated to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey. This iconic landmark stands tall at the top of a hill overlooking Ankara's skyline. Visitors can explore its grand halls and learn about Atatürk's life and legacy.

Kocatepe Mosque is another landmark that features on Turkish lira banknotes. Its impressive architecture draws visitors from all over the world to admire its beauty. The mosque was completed in 1987 after years of construction and is now one of Ankara's most recognizable landmarks.

Ankara also boasts several museums that showcase its rich cultural heritage. The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations houses artifacts from various periods throughout history, including Hittite pottery and Roman mosaics. The Ethnographic Museum provides insight into traditional Turkish culture with exhibits featuring clothing, textiles, and household items from different regions across Turkey.

In addition to its historical significance, Ankara is also a bustling modern city with plenty to offer visitors. Its vibrant neighborhoods are filled with cafes, restaurants, and shops selling everything from traditional Turkish sweets to handmade crafts.

Ankara's History: Great Seljuk Empire, Seljuk and Ottoman Era

Seljuk Turks and the Great Seljuk Empire

Ankara's history dates back to the 11th century when it was founded by the Seljuk Turks. The Seljuks were originally from Central Asia and established the Great Seljuk Empire, which covered a vast area of land in the Middle East, including modern-day Iran, Iraq, and parts of Turkey. Ankara served as an important center for trade and commerce during this time.

The Seljuks were known for their military prowess, and they expanded their empire through conquests. They also had a significant impact on Islamic culture and architecture. Some of the most notable examples of Seljuk architecture can be found in cities like Isfahan in Iran.

Ottoman Era and Ottoman Architecture

Ankara played an important role during the Ottoman era, serving as a key administrative center for the empire. Many Ottoman officials and their families lived in Ankara, which led to the development of several impressive architectural structures throughout the city.

One of the most notable examples of Ottoman architecture in Ankara is the Haci Bayram Mosque complex. This complex was built in honor of Haci Bayram Veli, a prominent Sufi saint who lived during the 16th century. The mosque features intricate tile work and calligraphy that are typical of Ottoman design.

Atatürk's Leadership

Following World War I, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk led a successful campaign against foreign powers that had occupied Turkish territory. He then established the Turkish Republic with Ankara as its capital in 1923.

Atatürk is widely regarded as one of Turkey's greatest leaders due to his efforts to modernize Turkey's political system and society. He introduced sweeping reforms that abolished many traditional practices such as polygamy and religious courts while promoting education, secularism, and women's rights.

Influence from Various Civilizations

Throughout its history, Ankara has been influenced by various civilizations, including the Byzantine Empire and Persian Empire. The city also played a significant role in the European Union's expansion plans in the early 2000s.

Ankara is known for its production of high-quality wool from Angora goats, which is used to make luxurious textiles such as cashmere and mohair. The city is also home to the famous Angora cats, which are prized for their long, silky fur.


Prehistory and Early History of Ankara: Anatolia and Eastern Thrace

Anatolia: A Cradle of Civilization

Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, is a region in modern-day Turkey that has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The area around Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, is located in the central part of Anatolia and has a rich history dating back to the early years of civilization. The ancient Greeks referred to this region as Anadolu, which means "the land where the sun rises." It was an important center of trade and commerce due to its strategic location between Europe and Asia.

The Early Years: Prehistory and Early History

The prehistory of Ankara dates back to the Paleolithic era, with evidence of human settlement found in nearby Karain Cave. During the Bronze Age, Hattians and Hittites were among the first civilizations to settle in this region. Later on, Phrygians established their kingdom in central Anatolia around 1200 BCE. They were followed by Lydians who ruled over western Anatolia until they were conquered by Persians in 546 BCE.

Byzantine Era: Rise as Military Stronghold

During the Byzantine era (330-1453 CE), Ankara became an important military stronghold in eastern Thrace. In 272 CE, Emperor Aurelian made Ankara a part of Roman Empire's province Galatia and renamed it "Ancyra". The city played a significant role during several wars against Sassanid Persians and Arab invasions.

Conquest by Persians and Arabs

In 6th century CE, Persian King Chosroes I captured Ankara from Byzantines but lost it again after two years. In 7th century CE Arab forces led by Caliphate Umar captured most parts of Anatolia including Ankara which remained under Arab rule for several centuries.

Ottoman Empire: A Center for Ethnic Groups

In the 18th century CE Ottoman Empire became a center of power in Ankara and the city experienced significant growth. The city was home to many different ethnic groups, including Turks, Greeks, Armenians, and Jews. During the 19th century CE, Ankara became an important trading center for agricultural goods such as wheat and wool.

NATO Headquarters

Today, Ankara is the capital of Turkey and is home to many important institutions including NATO headquarters. It has grown into a modern metropolis with a population of over five million people. The city has undergone rapid development in recent years with new infrastructure projects such as high-speed train lines and subway systems.

Ankara as the Capital: When Did it Happen? Features and Statistics

Location and Population

Located in the central Anatolian region of Turkey, Ankara has a population of over 5 million people. The city is situated at an altitude of 938 meters above sea level and covers an area of 25,632 square kilometers. Ankara is surrounded by mountains on three sides, which makes it a natural fortress. The city's strategic location has made it an important center for trade and commerce throughout history.

Government Buildings

Ankara is home to many government buildings, including the Presidential Palace, Parliament, and various ministries. These buildings are located in the central district of Kizilay, which is also the commercial heart of the city. The Presidential Palace was built in 2014 and covers an area of over 300,000 square meters. It is one of the largest presidential palaces in the world.

Transportation Hub

Ankara is an important transportation hub with a major airport and several highways and railways connecting it to other parts of Turkey. Esenboga International Airport serves both domestic and international flights with direct connections to major cities around the world. Ankara also has a modern public transportation system that includes buses, metro lines, trams, and suburban trains.

History and Culture

Ankara has a rich history dating back to ancient times when it was known as Ancyra or Angora. The city has been ruled by various empires throughout history including Hittites, Phrygians, Persians, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks, Ottomans and finally Turks. As such there are many museums that showcase this rich history such as Anitkabir Museum (Mausoleum), Ethnography Museum of Ankara (Etnografya Muzesi), Museum Of Anatolian Civilizations (Anadolu Medeniyetleri Muzesi) and many more.

Landmarks and Monuments

Ankara is also known for its landmarks and monuments that attract tourists from around the world. One of the most famous landmarks in Ankara is the Ataturk Mausoleum, which was built to honor the founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. The mausoleum is located on a hill overlooking the city and has become a symbol of Turkish nationalism. Another famous monument in Ankara is the Kocatepe Mosque, one of the largest mosques in Turkey with a capacity of over 24,000 worshippers.

anıtkabir tomb

Cultural Experience in Ankara: Literature, Theatre, and Museums


Ankara is a city that has been shaped by its diverse history and culture. The city's literary scene is vibrant and offers a unique experience for visitors. One of the most famous literary figures from Ankara is Sabahattin Ali, who was born in the city in 1907. His novel "Madonna in a Fur Coat" has become an international bestseller and has been translated into more than twenty languages.

In addition to Sabahattin Ali, there are many other renowned writers who have called Ankara home. For example, Yaşar Kemal, one of Turkey's most celebrated authors, lived in Ankara for several years during his early career. His novels often explore the lives of rural communities in Turkey and have been translated into over forty languages.


Ankara's theatre scene is also thriving with several venues throughout the city offering performances year-round. One of the most popular theatres is the State Theatre which hosts plays ranging from classic Turkish dramas to contemporary works from around the world.

In addition to traditional theatre productions, Ankara also hosts several festivals throughout the year that celebrate different forms of performing arts such as dance and puppetry. The International Ankara Theatre Festival is one such event that attracts performers from all over the world.


Ankara boasts several museums that showcase its rich cultural heritage. One of the most famous museums is Anıtkabir, which houses the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk - founder of modern-day Turkey. Visitors can learn about Atatürk's life and legacy through exhibits featuring photographs, personal belongings, and documents.

Another museum worth visiting is the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations which showcases artifacts from various civilizations that once inhabited Anatolia - including Hittite, Phrygian, Greek and Roman periods. The museum's collection includes pottery, sculptures, and jewelry that offer a glimpse into the daily lives of these ancient peoples.

Republic of Turkey: The Turkish Republican Capital

Ankara: The Political Capital of the Turkish Republic

The establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923 marked a significant turning point in Turkey's history. Led by Mustafa Kemal, who later became known as Atatürk, the country underwent a series of reforms aimed at modernizing and secularizing the nation. One of these reforms was the decision to move the capital from Istanbul to Ankara, which has since served as the administrative center of Turkey.

Today, Ankara is home to over 5 million people and is considered the political capital of Turkey. It is where the President and other government officials reside and work. Despite being smaller than Istanbul in terms of population, Ankara plays a crucial role in shaping Turkey's political landscape.

The Turkish Government: A Strong Presence in Ankara

The Turkish government is based in Ankara, making it an essential city for politics and administration. As such, it is not surprising that many government buildings are located here. The Presidential Complex, for instance, houses both the Presidential Palace and offices for senior government officials. Meanwhile, Parliament meets at Grand National Assembly Building (TBMM), which is also situated in Ankara.

Aside from these official buildings, there are also numerous embassies located within Ankara's borders. This fact highlights how important this city is when it comes to international relations.

A Melting Pot of Cultures

Despite being predominantly Turkish, there is also a small Kurdish minority living within Ankara's borders. This diversity adds another layer to what makes this city so unique.

In addition to its diverse population, Ankara boasts several cultural landmarks that celebrate its rich history and heritage. For example, Anıtkabir - Atatürk's Mausoleum - stands tall on one of Ankara's hillsides as a testament to his legacy as founder and first president of modern-day Turkey.

Mosques in Ankara: Yeni (Cenab Ahmet) Mosque, Ahi Elvan Mosque, Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque

Yeni (Cenab Ahmet) Mosque: A Modern Marvel

The Yeni Mosque, also known as the Cenab Ahmet Mosque, is a relatively new addition to Ankara's skyline. Completed in 2011, this stunning mosque boasts an impressive modern design that has quickly become an iconic landmark of the city. The mosque's unique architecture is a blend of traditional Ottoman and contemporary styles, making it a must-visit destination for anyone interested in Islamic art and architecture.

One of the most striking features of the Yeni Mosque is its towering minarets that rise high above the surrounding buildings. These slender spires are adorned with intricate calligraphy and geometric patterns that are illuminated at night, creating a breathtaking sight that can be seen from miles away. Inside, visitors will find a spacious prayer hall that can accommodate up to 3,000 worshippers at once. The walls and ceilings are decorated with beautiful tilework and ornate carvings that showcase Turkey's rich cultural heritage.

Ahi Elvan Mosque: A Historic Gem

Located in the Ulus district of Ankara, the Ahi Elvan Mosque is one of the oldest surviving mosques in the city. Built in the 14th century during the reign of Sultan Murad I, this historic gem has stood the test of time and remains an important symbol of Turkey's Islamic heritage. The mosque was named after Ahi Elvan, a prominent Turkish scholar who lived during this period.

The Ahi Elvan Mosque is a prime example of classic Ottoman architecture, featuring a large central dome supported by four smaller domes and elegant arches that create an open and airy atmosphere inside. Visitors will be struck by its simplicity yet grandeur as they enter through its intricately carved wooden doors into its peaceful courtyard filled with trees.

Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque: An Impressive Modern Structure

Named after one of Turkey's most influential Islamic scholars, the Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque is a modern masterpiece that was completed in 2013. Located in the Mamak district of Ankara, this impressive structure can accommodate up to 6,000 worshippers at once and features state-of-the-art technology that enhances the overall prayer experience.

The mosque's exterior is a striking blend of traditional and contemporary styles, with its towering minarets and grand entranceway made from gleaming white marble. Inside, visitors will find a spacious prayer hall that is flooded with natural light thanks to its large windows and skylights. The walls are adorned with beautiful calligraphy and geometric patterns that add to the mosque's overall sense of serenity.


Museums in Ankara: Museum of Anatolian Civilizations and METU Science and Technology Museum

Museum of Anatolian Civilizations: A Journey Through Time

The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations is a must-see attraction for history buffs visiting Ankara. The museum houses an impressive collection of over 200,000 artifacts from various ancient civilizations that lived in the Anatolian region. From pottery to sculptures and jewelry, the museum offers visitors a glimpse into the rich cultural heritage of Turkey.

One of the highlights of the museum is its Hittite collection. The Hittites were one of the most powerful empires in ancient Anatolia, and their legacy can be seen in many parts of modern-day Turkey. The Hittite gallery at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations features intricate sculptures, reliefs, and other artifacts that provide insight into this fascinating civilization.

Another noteworthy section is the Phrygian gallery, which showcases artifacts from one of the oldest civilizations in Anatolia. Visitors can see examples of Phrygian pottery, jewelry, and even a reconstructed tomb from Gordion, which was once the capital city of Phrygia.

In addition to these galleries, visitors can also explore exhibits on other civilizations such as Urartu and Lydia. The museum's extensive collection provides a comprehensive overview of ancient life in Anatolia.

METU Science and Technology Museum: An Interactive Experience

For those interested in science and technology, METU Science and Technology Museum is a must-visit attraction in Ankara. The museum features interactive exhibits that showcase Turkey's contributions to science and technology throughout history.

One exhibit that stands out is "Energy," which explores different sources of energy such as wind power and solar energy. Visitors can interact with models that demonstrate how these sources work and learn about their benefits for both society and the environment.

Another popular exhibit is "Transportation," which showcases various modes of transportation throughout history. From horse-drawn carriages to modern-day automobiles, visitors can see how transportation has evolved over time.

The museum also features exhibits on communication, space technology, and even robotics. Visitors can interact with robots and learn about their potential applications in various industries.

State Art and Sculpture Museum, Parties, and Elections in Ankara

State Art and Sculpture Museum: A Treasure Trove of Turkish Art

The State Art and Sculpture Museum in Ankara is a must-visit destination for art lovers. The museum boasts an impressive collection of Turkish art from the Ottoman era to contemporary times. Visitors can marvel at the intricate details of calligraphy, ceramics, textiles, and paintings that reflect Turkey's rich cultural heritage.

One of the highlights of the museum is its collection of sculptures. The museum has over 1,500 sculptures on display, including works by renowned artists such as Zühtü Müridoğlu and İlhan Koman. The sculptures range from classical to modern styles and showcase different materials like marble, bronze, wood, and stone.

Apart from its permanent collection, the museum also hosts temporary exhibitions that feature works by local and international artists. These exhibitions provide visitors with an opportunity to experience different forms of art and gain insights into contemporary artistic trends.

Parties and General Elections: Reflections of Democracy in Ankara

Ankara serves as the capital city of Turkey and is home to the Grand National Assembly, which is responsible for enacting laws that govern the country. As such, it has been a site for numerous political parties and general elections throughout history.

Political parties play a crucial role in shaping democracy in Turkey. They represent different groups within society and advocate for their interests through various means such as rallies, campaigns, debates, etc. In Ankara, political parties are active participants in shaping public opinion on issues ranging from social justice to foreign policy.

General elections are held every five years in Turkey to elect members of parliament who will serve as representatives for their respective constituencies. These elections are highly contested affairs that involve intense campaigning by political parties seeking to win seats in parliament.

Architecture: A Reflection of History and Diversity

Ankara's architecture reflects its diverse history shaped by various states that have ruled over it throughout centuries. The city's landmarks, such as Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and the Grand National Assembly building, are prime examples of this diversity.

Ankara's architecture also reflects its modernization efforts in recent years. The city has undergone rapid development with the construction of new government buildings, commercial centers, and residential complexes. These developments have transformed Ankara into a modern metropolis while still preserving its historical charm.

Parks and Monuments: Landmarks for People and Foreign Policy

Ankara's parks serve as important landmarks for its population. They provide residents with green spaces to relax and engage in recreational activities. Some of the popular parks in Ankara include Gençlik Parkı, Kuğulu Parkı, and Botanik Parkı.

Monuments like Anıtkabir play a crucial role in shaping Turkey's foreign policy. The mausoleum serves as a symbol of Turkish nationalism and is an essential destination for foreign dignitaries visiting Turkey.

Courts and Government Buildings: Symbols of Power

Ankara's courts and government buildings serve as symbols of power. They represent the authority vested in them by the people of Turkey to govern their country justly. These buildings reflect Turkey's commitment to democracy and rule of law.

Discovering the Beauty of the Fascinating Capital of Turkey

The Vibrant City Center of Ankara

Ankara, the capital of Turkey, is a bustling city located in the central province of the country. The city center is home to many government buildings, museums, and cultural landmarks. One of the most iconic sites in Ankara is Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first president of modern-day Turkey.

In addition to its historical significance, Ankara also boasts a vibrant nightlife scene with plenty of bars and clubs for visitors to enjoy. Kızılay Square is one of the busiest areas in the city center and offers a wide variety of restaurants and cafes serving traditional Turkish cuisine as well as international dishes.

For those interested in shopping, Ankara has several modern shopping centers such as Ankamall and Armada that offer a range of local and international brands. Visitors can also explore local markets such as Ulus Market where they can find authentic Turkish goods including spices, textiles, and handicrafts.

Exploring Northern Cyprus

Northern Cyprus is a beautiful region located on the northern coast of Cyprus that is often overlooked by tourists. The region boasts stunning beaches with crystal clear waters that are perfect for swimming or sunbathing. One popular beach destination in Northern Cyprus is Kyrenia which features picturesque harbor views along with an impressive castle dating back to the 16th century.

In addition to its natural beauty, Northern Cyprus also has several historical sites worth visiting including St. Hilarion Castle which offers panoramic views over the coastline. Visitors can also explore Bellapais Abbey which dates back to the 13th century and was once home to monks from France.

The Black Sea Coast: A Hidden Gem

The Black Sea coast region in Turkey is often overlooked by tourists but it offers some of the most stunning landscapes in all of Turkey. The region features lush green forests that stretch down towards pristine beaches with turquoise waters.

One of the most popular destinations on the Black Sea coast is Trabzon which is home to several historical landmarks including the Hagia Sophia Museum which dates back to the 13th century. Visitors can also explore Sumela Monastery which is perched high up in the mountains and offers breathtaking views over the surrounding landscape.

Another must-visit destination on the Black Sea coast is Rize which is famous for its tea plantations that stretch out across rolling hillsides. Visitors can take a tour of local tea factories and learn about how tea is produced in Turkey.


Ankara as the Capital: From Past to Present

Ankara: A City with a Rich History

As the capital of Turkey, Ankara has come a long way since its days as an ancient city known as Angora. With a history dating back to the Bronze Age, Ankara has seen many changes throughout the centuries. Despite this, it has remained an important center for trade and commerce in the region.

In recent years, Ankara has undergone significant development and modernization. The city is now home to many government institutions and agencies, including the General Directorate of Highways and the Turkish Statistical Institute. These developments have helped to make Ankara a hub for technology and innovation in Turkey.

The 20th century was a particularly important time for Ankara. It was during this period that many significant events took place in the city. One such event was the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. This marked a turning point in Turkish history, as Istanbul was replaced by Ankara as the country's capital.

The adoption of a new constitution was another key event that took place in Ankara during this time. This document laid out the principles upon which modern Turkey would be built. It also established many of the institutions that are still present in Turkish society today.

Looking towards the future, there is no doubt that Ankara will continue to play an important role in Turkey's economy and political landscape. The latter half of the 21st century promises to bring even more growth and development to this vibrant city.

Ankara: A Hub for Technology and Innovation

One of the most exciting things about Ankara today is its status as a hub for technology and innovation. In recent years, there has been significant investment in research and development within the city. This has led to many new startups being founded here, along with numerous high-tech companies setting up shop.

The General Directorate of Highways is just one example of how technology is being used to improve life in Ankara. This organization uses cutting-edge software and hardware to manage Turkey's extensive network of highways. By doing so, they are able to reduce traffic congestion and improve safety for all drivers on the road.

The Turkish Statistical Institute is another institution that has benefited from Ankara's focus on technology and innovation. This organization uses advanced data analysis techniques to provide accurate and up-to-date information about the Turkish economy. This information is used by policymakers to make informed decisions about economic policy in Turkey.

Ankara: A City with a Bright Future

As we look towards the future, there is no doubt that Ankara will continue to be an important center for trade, commerce, and innovation in Turkey. With its rich history and vibrant culture, this city has much to offer both residents and visitors alike.

In the coming years, we can expect to see even more growth and development in Ankara. New startups will be founded here, high-tech companies will continue to set up shop, and government institutions will work hard to improve life for everyone who calls this city home.

All in all, it is clear that Ankara has a bright future ahead of it. As one of the most important cities in Turkey today, it will undoubtedly play a key role in shaping the country's destiny for many years to come.

Conclusion: Discovering the Beauty of the Capital of Turkey

In conclusion, Ankara is a city that is full of history, culture, and beauty. From its ancient past to its modern present, the capital of Turkey has something for everyone. With a climate that is pleasant throughout the year and a total population that is growing rapidly, Ankara is home to people from all walks of life.

Whether you are interested in exploring the city's rich cultural heritage or simply want to enjoy its natural beauty, there are plenty of things to see and do in Ankara. From visiting museums and mosques to attending art exhibitions and cultural events, there is always something new and exciting happening in this vibrant city.

So if you are looking for a destination that offers both history and modernity, culture and nature, then look no further than Ankara. With its diverse attractions and welcoming atmosphere, it truly is one of the most fascinating cities in Turkey. So why not plan your next trip today? You won't be disappointed!

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