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Campaña de Gallipoli: hechos, historia y realidad Impacto

La campaña de Galípoli fue una operación militar durantePrimera Guerra Mundialcuyo objetivo era asegurar una ruta marítima hacia Rusia y debilitar laimperio Otomano. El general Sir Ian Hamilton fue designado para dirigir la campaña, que comenzó con un ataque naval a los Dardanelos en febrero. La invasión de tierras comenzó enabril de 1915, con tropas desembarcando en varios puntos a lo largo de la península de Galípoli, incluidos Helles y Krithia.

La campaña estuvo marcada por feroces combates y un gran número de bajas en ambos bandos, con pocos avances logrados por ambos bandos.Aliados o otomanos. A pesar de esto, se considera un acontecimiento importante en la historia de la Primera Guerra Mundial, y su impacto se siente no sólo en el campo de batalla sino también en el panorama político y social de los países involucrados.

Entonces, ¿qué fue exactamente la campaña de Gallipoli? Fue un intento de las fuerzas aliadas, principalmente de Gran Bretaña y Francia, de abrir un nuevo frente contra Alemania atacando a través de Turquía. La esperanza era que esto ayudaría a romper el punto muerto en el frente occidental y permitiría enviar suministros a Rusia más fácilmente.

El general Sir Ian Hamilton dirigió esta ambiciosa campaña, que comenzó con un ataque naval a las posiciones turcas en febrero de 1915. Sin embargo, a pesar del éxito inicial al romper algunas de sus defensas, los contraataques turcos finalmente los repelieron.

En abril de 1915, Las tropas aliadas desembarcaron en varios puntos a lo largo de la península de Gallipoli, incluidoHelles y Krithia. Esto marcó el comienzo de lo que se convertiría en una de las campañas más brutales de la Primera Guerra Mundial. Siguieron más de ocho meses de intensos combates entre dos bandos decididos a mantenerse firmes.

A pesar de las grandes pérdidas sufridas por ambas partes -alrededor de 250.000 víctimas en total - Ninguna de las partes pudo obtener ninguna ventaja significativa sobre la otra.En enero de 1916, después de meses de guerra de trincheras y ofensivas fallidas, las fuerzas aliadas finalmente fueron evacuadas de Gallipoli.

No se puede subestimar la importancia de esta campaña. Fue una importante apuesta estratégica de los aliados que finalmente fracasó. El fracaso de la campaña tuvo un impacto significativo en la guerra, prolongándola y provocando muchas más víctimas.

La Campaña de Gallipoli también tuvo un profundo efecto en el panorama político y social de los países involucrados.En Australia yNueva Zelanda, por ejemplo, se conmemora comoDía de Anzac - un día para recordar a quienes lucharon y murieron en esta campaña.


Ottoman and Allied Preparations for Defense and Landing

Ottoman forces were well aware of the possibility of an Allied landing on the Gallipoli peninsula during World War I. They had prepared their defenses accordingly, including the placement of artillery and fortifications along the coast. Ottoman troops were reinforced with soldiers from other parts of the empire, including Arab and Kurdish units, to bolster their defenses against the expected amphibious landing.

The Ottomans had a clear advantage in defending their land as they knew every inch of it. The terrain was rugged, and there were only a few beaches that could be used for landing. The Ottoman defenders used this to their advantage by placing artillery on high ground overlooking these beaches. This allowed them to rain down fire on any incoming ships or troops.

The Allied fleet launched a naval attack on the Turkish defenses before the landing, but Ottoman defenders were able to hold off the assault with heavy fire from their coastal artillery. The Turkish guns caused significant damage to several Allied ships, forcing them to retreat back out to sea.

Despite these initial successes for the Ottoman defenders, the Allies eventually managed to land on the peninsula and engage in fierce fighting with Ottoman forces. The beachheads established by British and French troops proved difficult for Ottoman forces to dislodge due to superior firepower provided by machine guns and artillery.

The Ottomans also faced issues with communication between different units due to language barriers between Arabic-speaking soldiers from Syria or Iraq and Turkish-speaking soldiers from Anatolia or Rumelia.

The Beginning of the Gallipoli Land Invasion

April 25, 1915 marked the beginning of one of the most significant battles in history: the Gallipoli land invasion. This battle was fought during World War I and was an attempt by British and French forces to secure a sea route to Russia by taking control of the Gallipoli Peninsula. The land invasion began with troops landing at two main points: Suvla Bay and Gaba Tepe.

First Day of Invasion

The first day of the invasion saw troops coming ashore at Cape Helles, with the 29th Indian Brigade being the first to land on the Gallipoli Peninsula. The soldiers arrived early in the morning, under cover from Turkish guns that were positioned on high ground overlooking the beaches. The Turkish army had been preparing for an attack for months and had dug trenches along the coastline, making it difficult for allied troops to gain a foothold on land.

Suvla Bay and Gaba Tepe

The Suvla Bay landing was carried out by British forces under General Stopford's command. However, due to poor planning and communication issues, they failed miserably in their objectives. On the other hand, Gaba Tepe was taken over by Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who managed to establish a beachhead after fierce fighting against Turkish defenders.

Winston Churchill's Role

The Gallipoli campaign was overseen by Winston Churchill, who was serving as First Lord of Admiralty at that time. He believed that capturing Constantinople would be a quick victory that could help end World War I sooner than expected. However, his plan failed due to poor planning and coordination between allied forces.

ANZAC Cove and Advancement Across the Peninsula

ANZAC Cove holds a special place in the hearts of Australians and New Zealanders as it was here that their soldiers landed on April 25, 1915. This day is now commemorated as ANZAC Day in both countries. The landing at ANZAC Cove was part of a larger campaign to capture the Gallipoli Peninsula from Turkish forces during World War I. While the campaign ultimately ended in failure, the bravery and sacrifice of the ANZACs are still remembered today.

New Zealand troops played a significant role in the advancement across the peninsula, particularly in securing high ground and pushing towards the Aegean coast. General Sir Alexander Godley, who commanded the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF), was instrumental in planning and executing many of these actions. The NZEF fought alongside Australian troops as part of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC).

The New Zealanders were involved in several notable actions during the campaign, including at Chunuk Bair where they captured an important hilltop position from Turkish forces. The attack on Chunuk Bair was led by Lieutenant-Colonel William Malone who was posthumously awarded a Victoria Cross for his bravery during this action. Another Victoria Cross was awarded to Corporal Cyril Bassett for his work laying communication lines under heavy fire.

The French submarine Joule played a crucial role in supplying and evacuating troops from ANZAC Cove and other beaches along the peninsula while also providing intelligence on enemy movements. The submarine made several trips between France and Gallipoli during its time there, delivering supplies such as food, ammunition, medical equipment, and reinforcements to Allied forces.

Ottoman Counteroffensive in May and August Offensive

Ottoman forces launched a counteroffensive in May 1915, resulting in heavy losses for both sides.

The Ottoman Empire had been caught off guard by the Allied invasion at Gallipoli. However, they quickly regrouped and launched a counteroffensive in May 1915. The Ottoman forces were led by Mustafa Kemal, who would later become the founder of modern Turkey. Kemal played a crucial role in the successful defense against the Allied attacks in March and April. He was able to rally his troops and coordinate their efforts effectively.

The May counteroffensive saw fierce fighting on both sides, with heavy casualties on both sides. The Ottoman forces were able to push back the Allies and regain some of their lost territory. However, they suffered significant losses themselves. Despite this setback, the Ottomans were able to hold their ground and prevent any further advances by the Allies.

Mustafa Kemal's leadership during this critical period was instrumental in turning the tide of the battle. He was able to inspire his troops to fight fiercely and defend their homeland at all costs. His strategic planning and tactical brilliance allowed him to outmaneuver the Allied forces time and time again.

The August Offensive saw the Allies launch a major attack on the Ottoman lines, but they were ultimately repulsed with significant casualties.

In August 1915, the Allies launched another major offensive against the Ottoman lines. This time, they hoped to break through and capture Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul). The Ottoman forces were stretched thin from months of fighting, but they still managed to mount a strong defense.

The August Offensive saw some of the bloodiest fighting of World War I. Both sides suffered heavy losses, with many experienced commanders among the casualties. Despite this, however, it was ultimately a victory for the Ottomans. They were able to repulse every attack by the Allies and maintain control over Gallipoli.

British General Sir Ian Hamilton was replaced by General Sir Frederick de Robeck following the failure of the August Offensive.

The failure of the August Offensive led to a change in leadership for the Allies. British General Sir Ian Hamilton was replaced by General Sir Frederick de Robeck. De Robeck was tasked with finding a way to break through the Ottoman lines and win the battle once and for all.

Despite his best efforts, however, de Robeck was unable to achieve this goal. The Ottomans continued to hold their ground, and eventually, the Allies were forced to withdraw from Gallipoli altogether.

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